Goldfish can change colour at any point in their life span without any warning. You may just simply wake up one morning and your fish will be an entirely different colour to the one it was the night before. This is all down to genetics. A fish’s genes specify what colour it is going to be and when it will become this colour. So if you find that it does turn white, then there is simply nothing you can do about it and it is certainly not something to fret about.
Exposing your fish to sunlight, obviously in an outdoor pond, can sometimes help to retain the original colour but if you don’t have one of these then you can try purchasing some colour enhancing food from your local pet shop to see it this helps. However, as mentioned before, nothing will stop genetics from occurring.
There is a chemistry rumour (or theory) that if your goldfish spends too much time in the dark then it will start to turn white. However, this is probably not true although over time you may start to notice that the fish’s original colour has become paler. Fish who are exposed to UVA and UVB rays are often more brightly coloured than those who are kept indoors without full spectrum lighting.
This is because the chromatophores in your fish’s fins will not produce any pigmentation without any sunlight so your fish’s appearance will appear paler. However, it is unlikely that your fish will turn white if you leave it in the dark because they regain some of their natural fin colouring when they eat foods such as shrimps, spirulina and fish meal as these all naturally contain a pigment called carotenoids.