The ants will actually place aphids on plants - the ants like to eat the sugary stuff the aphids produce. Frankly I think you'll have a hard job getting rid of ants and/or aphids in your situation without killing the tree the rosebush and anything else around like birds, other insects and maybe even pets might suffer. Ants live all over the garden, and they do like trees......have you thought of moving the rosebush?
If you are not opposed to using appropriate pesticides in your garden, Diazinon granules would be effective and not harm your roses. Just make sure you use as directed, and wear protective gloves when applying to soil. Also, aphids and ants have a peculiar symbiotic relationship in the insect world; the ants are attracted to the sticky substance aphids secret on flower buds and leaves ( I can't remember the benefit that aphids get out of all that LOL) , but if this seems to be the case, you will want to treat the roses for aphids, also.
Prepare a mixture of dishwashing liquid and water 1/2 in 1/2 in a spray bottle,this works for most flowers and such.