Of course. Any human medication can kill them and anything you give your pet should be prescribed by your vet. They have theor own medications like that and something like that for humans isn't given to them. Aside from dosage issues it is very important to be sure that your treating the actual problem. If your dog accidentally got ahold of yours you need to call your vet.
Human tramadol is often combined with acetaminophen when prescribed for humans, which can injure your pet. Do not give dogs medication labeled for human use unless told to do so by your veterinarian.